The 5 Steps of the Recruitment Process
The five steps of the recruitment process are as follows:
(i) Recruitment planning
(ii) Strategy development
(v) Assessment and Monitoring.
The first step in the recruitment process is planning. This involves writing a complete job specification for the position to be filled, outlining major and minor responsibilities, required skills, experience and qualifications, grade and salary level, start date, whether the position is temporary or permanent, and special conditions, if any, related to the position to be filled.
Once it is known how many candidates, with what qualifications, are needed, the next step is to develop an appropriate strategy for recruiting candidates to the organization.
Strategic considerations to be taken into account may include such issues as whether to prepare the required candidates themselves or to recruit them externally, the type of recruitment method to be used, the geographic area to be considered for sourcing candidates, the recruitment source to be used, and the sequence of activities to be followed in recruiting candidates into the organization.
This step involves attracting job seekers to the organization. There are basically two sources used to attract candidates.
The latter were discussed in detail in section 6.3 Recruitment Sources.
Although some consider screening to be the starting point for selection, we have considered it an integral part of recruitment. This is because the selection process only begins after the screening and selection of applicants. Let's take an example to illustrate our point.
In universities, applications are solicited to fill faculty positions. The applications received in response to the invitation, i.e. the advertisement, are reviewed and screened on the basis of eligibility and suitability. Then, only shortlisted candidates are invited to participate in a seminar and a personal interview. The selection process starts here, i.e. at the seminar presentation or interview.
The job specification is very valuable for the selection. Applications are reviewed based on the qualifications, knowledge, skills, abilities, interests and experience listed in the job specification. Those who do not meet the requirements are eliminated directly from the selection process.
The techniques used to screen candidates vary depending on the source of supply and the method used for recruitment. Preliminary applications, screening tests, and selection interviews are common techniques used to select candidates.
Evaluation and Monitoring:
Given the considerable cost of the recruitment process, its evaluation and control is, therefore, imperative.
The costs typically incurred in a recruitment process are as follows:
(i) Recruiters' salaries
(ii) Cost of time spent preparing the job analysis and advertisement.
(iii) Administrative costs
(iv) Cost of outsourcing or working overtime while vacancies are unfilled
(v) Cost of recruiting unsuitable candidates.
Given the above, it is necessary for a prudent employer to try to answer some questions such as: Are the recruitment methods appropriate and valid? And whether or not the recruitment process followed in the organization is effective? If the answers to these questions are negative, appropriate controls must be developed and implemented to remedy the situation.
However, such an exercise seems to be rarely carried out in practice by employer organizations. Having discussed the recruitment process, it is now relevant to get an idea of recruitment practices.
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